Wordsworth’s Literary Precedents

Wordsworth’s Literary Precedents

William Wordsworth developed a complete principle of poetry, partially, attributable to a request from Samuel Taylor Coleridge to jot down such a principle, and partially to behave as an explanatory introduction to the second version of the Lyrical Ballads. The primary version of the Lyrical Ballads met with blended critiques, and was criticized for its use of on a regular basis language and characters, pure settings, and incidents drawn from each day life. Wordsworth believed that the Preface to the Second Version of the Lyrical Ballads was an authentic expression of the artwork of poetry, and that his work, and the work of Coleridge represented a break from the Neo-Classical custom epitomized by Dryden and Pope and commented upon by Dr. Johnson. Commenting on Wordsworth’s perception within the authentic nature of the work, S.M. Parrish notes that “whether or not or not they have been progressive [Wordsworth’s ideas on poetry], they seem to have been considered such by Wordsworth, who repeatedly cited their divergence from standard types” (85).

Regardless of Wordsworth’s perception within the authentic nature of his poetic observe, I’ll argue that each he and Coleridge have been influenced by eighteenth-century poetic principle, primarily that of Dr. Johnson, and that they have been additionally influenced by the work showing in a number of of the poetry magazines within the late eighteenth century. I’ll then try and display that Wordsworth’s poetic principle, whereas being by-product in sure respects, was distinctive in its use of dramatic kind, characterization, narrative approach, use of the creativeness and pure themes, and that it was the mix of those themes and strategies that makes Wordsworth’s poetry so enduring.

Wordsworth, within the Essay Supplementary to the Preface of 1815, outlined poetry as a metrical association of the “actual language of males in a state of vivid pleasure and in a fashion meant to offer pleasure to the reader” (939). He wished to decide on incidents and conditions from widespread life, and to make these incidents attention-grabbing by “tracing in them, actually although not ostentatiously, the first legal guidelines of our nature” (791). He believed that the language of rustic women and men “has been adopted (purified certainly from what seem like its actual defects, from all lasting and rational causes of dislike or disgust) as a result of such males hourly talk with the most effective objects from which the most effective a part of language is initially derived” (791). Wordsworth thought that rustic life offered an ethical backdrop that was untainted from vainness and social conference, and due to this fact, that rustic personages spoke “a much more philosophical language, that than which is regularly substituted for it by Poets” ( 791).

For Wordsworth, poetry was not merely a pleasurable expertise shared between creator and reader; whereas he acknowledges that pleasure is without doubt one of the goals of poetry, he believed that good poetry should even have an ethical goal. In one of the crucial well-known passages from the Preface, Wordsworth notes that reflection is important to poetic building, and that by always focusing the thoughts on essential topics, the poet can convey his finest ideas to his readers, who will then profit from them.

For all good poetry is the spontaneous overflow of highly effective emotions: and although this be true, Poems to which any worth could be hooked up have been by no means produced on any number of topics however by a person who, being possessed of greater than normal natural sensibility, had additionally thought lengthy and deeply. For our continued influxes of feeling are modified and directed by our ideas, that are certainly the representatives of all our previous emotions; and, as by considering the relation of those basic representatives to one another, we uncover what is actually essential to males, so, by the repetition and continuance of this act, our emotions can be related with essential topics, until at size, if we be initially possessed of a lot sensibility, such habits of thoughts can be produced, that, by obeying blindly and mechanically the impulses of these habits, we will describe objects, and utter sentiments, of such a nature, and in such reference to one another, that the understanding of the Reader should essentially be in some extent enlightened, and his affections strengthened and purified. (791)

Using nature and pure settings is addressed within the Preface as a way of emphasizing man’s reliance on sensation. Wordsworth believed that scenes of nature have been widespread to all males, and that the poet, writing as a person talking the widespread language of males, was obliged to jot down concerning the sensations evoked by nature.

Undoubtedly with our ethical sentiments and animal sensations, and with the causes which excite these; with the operations of the weather, and with the appearances of the seen universe; with storms and sunshine, with the revolutions of the seasons, with chilly and warmth, with lack of pals and kindred, with accidents and resentments, gratitude and hope, with concern and sorrow. These, and the like, are the sensations and objects which the Poet describes, as they’re the sensations of different males, and the objects which curiosity them. (795-6).

In keeping with Wordsworth, the scenes which he witnessed are recollected in tranquility, and are reproduced, with virtually the identical drive as when first witnessed, upon re-reading. He additional believed that the reader might additionally expertise the identical units of feelings and emotions as these skilled by the creator.

Having outlined his notions of poetry within the Preface, Wordsworth added some further musings on the artwork of poetry within the Appendix to the Second Version of the Lyrical Ballads. Within the Appendix, he said that initially, poets of all nations wrote from ardour that was actual and unaffected, and that steadily, as this model of writing started to be admired, different individuals selected to jot down in an elevated, poetic model. This re-affirmation of a dislike of affected language, first developed within the Preface, is a main motive that he rejected the writings of the Neo-Classical poets, and he singled-out the poetry of Dryden and Pope as examples of an affected model.
In a controversial passage within the Appendix, he remarks that for works of creativeness and sentiment, there isn’t any important distinction between works of poetry and prose works:
…particularly, that in works of creativeness and sentiment, for of those solely have I been treating, in proportion as concepts and emotions are beneficial, whether or not the composition be in prose or in verse, they require and actual one and the identical language, Meter is however adventitious to composition, and the phrasing for which that passport is important, even the place it is likely to be sleek in any respect, can be little valued by the considered. (800)

Within the Preface to the Third Version of the Lyrical Ballads, Wordsworth tried to make clear his notions of using creativeness within the writing of poetry. He believed that creativeness was not merely the artwork of reproducing or copying one thing that the poet noticed, however that the thoughts operated with the fabric introduced to it, and someway remodeled this materials right into a poetic composition. In making an attempt to explain this transformative energy of the creativeness, Wordsworth writes that the Creativeness additionally shapes and creates; and the way? By innumerable processes; and in none does it extra delight than in that of consolidating numbers into unity, and dissolving and separating unity into quantity, – alternations continuing from, and ruled by, a elegant consciousness of the soul in her personal mighty and virtually divine powers. ( 804)

Within the Essay Supplementary to the Third Version of Lyrical Ballads, Wordsworth completes his formal discourse on poetic principle by noting that the “acceptable enterprise of poetry …is to deal with of issues not as they’re, however as they seem: not as they exist by themselves, however as they appear to exist to the senses, and to the passions” (807). This passage is an extra refinement of his definition of creativeness, and establishes Wordsworth’s notion {that a} poet shouldn’t be a mere reporter of occasions, however that the poet ought to see to the guts of issues as “they seem,” or ought to be.

By the point of the publication of the third version, the Lyrical Ballads, in addition to the steadiness of Wordsworth’s poetry, was starting to be accepted by the general public. In a telling remark to the Essay Supplementary, Wordsworth remarked that each nice creator has the “job of making the style by which he’s to be loved: so it has been, so will it proceed to be” (814). Alongside the identical traces, Wordsworth outlined genius as “…the introduction of a brand new factor into the mental universe: or, if that be not allowed, it’s the utility of powers to things on which they’d not earlier than been exercised, or the employment of them in such a fashion as to provide results hitherto unknown” ( 815).

Writing practically twenty years after the publication of the Lyrical Ballads, Coleridge supplied his personal views on poetic principle in his work Biographia Literaria. Whereas Coleridge was essential of a lot of Wordsworth’s principle on poetry, the 2 poets shared related beliefs in a number of areas, notably the final construction of the Lyrical Ballads; the requirement that poetry be pleasurable to the reader; Wordsworth’s use of widespread language as an experiment in a few of the poems; and at last, a requirement that the poet use his creativeness to infuse scenes with poetic energy.
In discussing the format of the Lyrical Ballads, Coleridge notes that …our conversations turned regularly on the 2 cardinal factors of poetry, the ability thrilling the sympathy of the reader by a trustworthy adherence to the reality of nature, and the ability of giving the curiosity of novelty by the modifying colours of creativeness. The sudden appeal, which accidents of sunshine and shade, which moon-light or sun-set subtle over a recognized and acquainted panorama, appeared to signify the practicability of mixing each. These are the poetry of nature. The thought prompt itself (to which of us I don’t recollect) {that a} collection of poems is likely to be composed of two kinds. Within the one, the incidents and brokers have been to be, partially at the very least, supernatural; and the excellence aimed toward was to consist within the attention-grabbing of the affections by the dramatic reality of such feelings, as would naturally accompany such conditions, supposing them actual. (524-5)

Within the previous paragraph, we’re made conscious of the final format of the work, the place Coleridge was to jot down about supernatural topics with the intent of constructing them appear actual. Coleridge elaborates on Wordsworth’s contribution to the work by saying that “For the second class, topics have been to be chosen from strange life; the characters and incidents have been to be such, as can be present in each village and its neighborhood, the place there’s a meditative and feeling thoughts to hunt after them, or to note them, after they current themselves”(517).

Not solely does Coleridge point out the framework of the Lyrical Ballads in these excerpts, he additionally introduces the theme of the “modifying colours of the creativeness.” For Coleridge, like Wordsworth, the creativeness combines components of the poet’s senses with the cognitive powers of the thoughts to remodel a sensory object into poetry. Coleridge describes this transformative energy of the creativeness in nice element.

The poet, described in ultimate perfection, brings the entire soul of man into exercise, with the subordination of its colleges to one another, in accordance with their relative price and dignity. He diffuses a tone and spirit of unity, that blends, and (because it have been) fuses, every into every by that artificial and magical energy, to which we’ve got completely appropriated the title of creativeness. This energy, first put in motion by the desire and understanding, and retained underneath their irremissive, although light and unnoticed, management (laxis effertur hebenis) reveals itself within the steadiness or reconciliation of reverse or discordant qualities: of sameness, with distinction; of the final, with the concrete; the thought, with the picture; the person with the consultant; the sense of novelty and freshness, with previous and acquainted objects; a greater than normal state of emotion, with greater than normal order; judgment ever awake and regular self-possession, with enthusiasm and feeling profound or vehement; and whereas it blends and harmonizes the pure and the bogus, nonetheless subordinates artwork to nature; the style to the matter; and our admiration of the poet to our sympathy with the poetry. (524-5)

Lastly, in discussing the language and characters employed by Wordsworth, Coleridge signifies that “On this kind the Lyrical Ballads have been printed; and have been introduced by him, as an experiment, whether or not topics, which from their nature rejected the same old ornaments and extra-colloquial model of poems typically, may not be so managed within the language of strange life as to provide the pleasurable curiosity, which it’s the peculiar enterprise of poetry to impart” (518). On this excerpt, Coleridge states that Wordsworth meant to make use of colloquial language as an experiment, which was designed to induce a pleasurable sensation within the thoughts of the reader. Coleridge believed, nevertheless, that Wordsworth carried the experiment too far, and later tried to attribute “the extension of this model to poetry of every kind, and to reject as vicious and indefensible all phrases and types of model that weren’t included in what he…referred to as the language of actual life” (518- 9).

Having mentioned Wordsworth’s principle of poetry, and added clarifying feedback from Coleridge, we are able to now examine the theories developed within the Lyrical Ballads with these of Dr. Johnson, the foremost literary critic of the Neo-Classical age. Within the Lifetime of Milton, Johnson states early within the biography that poetry “is the artwork of uniting pleasure with reality, by calling creativeness to the assistance of motive” ( 117). Johnson’s remark sounds remarkably just like the theories of each Wordsworth and Coleridge concerning the requirement that poetry produce a pleasurable response within the thoughts of the reader. Persevering with the dialogue of the requirement for poetry to be pleasurable, Johnson says a bit of later in Milton’s biography that “for the reason that finish of poetry is pleasure, that can not be unpoetical with which all are happy” (121).

Johnson had particular concepts on using pure settings in poetry, and commented that Milton, in The Paradise Misplaced, doesn’t evoke a real view of nature: “However his photographs and descriptions of the scenes or operations of Nature don’t appear to be at all times copied from authentic kind, nor have the freshness, raciness, and power of speedy commentary. He noticed Nature, as Dryden expresses it, via the spectacle of books; and on most events calls studying to his help” (123). This remark by Johnson lends credence to Wordsworth’s criticism of Neo-Classical poets as being extra involved with kind, and fewer involved with substance and feeling in poetry. As Wordsworth maintains in his principle of poetry, the poet makes use of photographs of nature to impart feeling and sensation to his reader.

Johnson, like Wordsworth, believed that poetry ought to be greater than mere pleasure, that it ought to impart an ethical high quality to the reader, as nicely. Johnson states that the primary work of the poet “is to discover a ethical, which his fable is afterwards for example and set up. … To convey this ethical, there should be a fable, a narration artfully constructed, in order to excite curiosity, and shock expectation” (118). Johnson, in a later passage, talks concerning the requirement for an ethical goal in poetry, whereas on the similar time discussing the duty of the poet to mix the weather of a poem in an harmonious complete which he should enhance and exalt by a nobler artwork, should animate by dramatic power, and diversify by retrospection and anticipation; morality should educate him the precise bounds, and totally different shades, of vice and advantage; from coverage, and the observe of life, he has to be taught the discriminations of character, and the tendency of the passions, both single or mixed; and physiology should provide him with illustrations and pictures. To place these supplies to poetical use, is required an creativeness able to portray nature, and realizing fiction. Neither is he but a poet until he has attained the entire extension of his language, distinguished all of the delicacies of phrase, and all the colors of phrases, and discovered to regulate their totally different sounds to all of the types of metrical modulation. (117-118).

Within the previous paragraph we additionally achieve perception into Johnson’s notion of creativeness. To Dr. Johnson, creativeness is important to mix the varied sensory inputs which the poet experiences into an harmonious complete, via using the cognitive talents of the poet. As soon as once more, this concept of creativeness as a transformative energy bears a putting similarity to the views held by Wordsworth and Coleridge.

In defining a poem, Johnson signifies that meter is important and that “…it’s nevertheless, by the music of meter that poetry has been discriminated in all languages; and in languages melodiously constructed with a due proportion of lengthy and brief syllables, meter is enough (133). You will need to notice that Johnson doesn’t require {that a} poem have a rhyme scheme, which can also be a view espoused by Wordsworth, and repudiated by Coleridge in one among his most well-known objections to Wordsworth’s principle of poetry.

In his Lifetime of Pope, Johnson traces the event of poetry from its earliest practitioners to the current age. He says that “Thus will probably be discovered, within the progress of studying, that in all nations the primary writers are easy, and that each age improves in class. One refinement at all times makes means for one more…” ( 320). This sentiment is remarkably much like that of Wordsworth when he says within the Appendix 1802, that: The earliest poets of all nations usually wrote from ardour excited by actual occasions; they wrote naturally, and as males: feeling powerfully as they did, their language was daring, and figurative. In succeeding instances, Poets, and Males formidable of the celebrity of Poets, perceiving the affect of such language, and desirous of manufacturing the identical impact with out being animated by the identical ardour, set themselves to a mechanical adoption of those figures of speech, and made use of them, generally with propriety, however rather more regularly utilized them to emotions and ideas with which they’d no pure connection by any means. ( 799)

Lastly, Johnson says that in Pope’s works “are exhibited, in a really excessive diploma, the 2 most partaking powers of an creator. New issues are made acquainted, and acquainted issues are made new” (316). This assertion is much like that made by Wordsworth when he was defining the standard of greatness in a poet as “the introduction of a brand new factor into the mental universe: or, if that be not allowed, it’s the utility of powers to things on which they’d not earlier than been exercised, or the employment of them in such a fashion as to provide results hitherto unknown” ( 815).

Primarily based on these observations, we are able to see that Wordsworth and Coleridge have been influenced, to some extent, by the Neo-Classical theories of poetry developed by Dr. Johnson. Essentially the most vital of the Johnsonian influences have been the notion that poetry ought to produce a pleasurable sensation within the thoughts of the reader, convey an ethical lesson, precisely depict pure settings, and use the imaginative powers of the poet to realize an harmonious mixture of poetic components.
The second a part of the argument of this paper was to display that Wordsworth and Coleridge made use of a lot of poetic conventions showing in poems which have been printed within the literary magazines of the late eighteenth century. The first supply for this argument is Robert Mayo’s creator of “The Contemporaneity of the Lyrical Ballads,” makes this argument most successfully.

As Mayo suggests in his paper, the Lyrical Ballads have been related in kind, subject material, and content material, to lots of the poems showing within the poetry magazines circulated within the latter portion of the eighteenth century. Mayo additional contends that readers of the Lyrical Ballads have been acquainted with the literary types employed by Wordsworth and Coleridge, and that the chief distinction between the poems within the Lyrical Ballads and poems showing in such literary journals as The Gentleman’s Journal, The European Journal, and The Month-to-month Journal was when it comes to inventive benefit and never content material, as the next citation illustrates:

The huge proportion of this verse [that is, verse appearing in the literary magazines] is hopelessly mediocre, and deservedly forgotten, besides that it gives the most effective accessible chart for the shifting currents of standard style. Via it we are able to partly perceive the bottom swell of standard favor which helped to lift the Lyrical Ballads to eminence despite hostile criticism from the Edinburgh reviewer and others. (488)

The themes developed within the poems which appeared within the literary magazines, and which have been subsequently taken up by Wordsworth and Coleridge, embrace these of simplicity, rural or pastoral settings, humanitarianism, the function of nature, and mawkish morality. Mayo contends that by the point that Wordsworth and Coleridge wrote the Lyrical Ballads, such themes weren’t uncommon, and that they have been changing into commonplace in poetry: However the extra one reads the favored poetry of the final quarter of the eighteenth century, the extra he’s more likely to really feel that the actually shocking function of those poems within the Lyrical Ballads (in addition to of lots of the others) – other than sheer literary excellence – is their intense achievement of an already stale conference, and never their discovery of an curiosity in rivers, valleys, groves, lakes and mountains, flowers and budding timber, the altering seasons, sunsets, and freshness of the morning, and the songs of birds. This truth is a commonplace. (491)

Turning to the type of poetry showing within the literary magazines, Mayo notes that the ballad, pastoral, grievance, fragment and sketch have been all standard varieties which have been utilized by authors through the late eighteenth century: “Ballads, complaints and plaintive tales, fragments, fables and anecdotes, songs and pastorals, sketches, effusions and reflective poems, and occasional items of varied sorts – these have been widespread coin within the poetry departments within the years earlier to 1798” (507).

Wordsworth and Coleridge utilized the types of ballad, pastoral, fragment, sketch and grievance within the poems comprising the Lyrical Ballads. As Mayo notes, many critics are inclined to ascribe the invention of the “lyrical ballad” to Wordsworth and Coleridge, however that:
The extra one reads the minor poetry of the magazines from 1788 to 1798, the extra it’s inconceivable to flee the impression that the idea of the “lyrical ballad” doesn’t signify a big innovation in 1798, nor as a time period is it notably acceptable to the contents of this quantity of poems. (511)

Lastly, Mayo contends that the “revolutionary” high quality of the Lyrical Ballads is overrated and misapplied by many critics, noting that:
…however by and enormous it could be affirmed that regardless of the claims which have since been made for them, the Lyrical Ballads, on the floor at any fee, don’t exhibit revolutionary and even shocking prosodic tendencies. On the entire the 2 poets seem to been glad to undertake meters which have been present in their very own day. (516)

Maxfield Parrish, in his work “Dramatic Approach within the Lyrical Ballads,” argues that Wordsworth’s actual contribution to lyric poetry was using dramatic kind, characterization, and narrative approach: “At one degree, after all, the experiments did contain poetic diction. However at a deeper degree they have been, I feel, experiments in dramatic kind, in characterization, and in narrative approach.” (86)

Parrish goes on to argue that the ballad kind allowed Wordsworth to discover psychological depth of character via the event of a story approach that he honed via readings of latest ballads. “However Wordsworth’s experiments in dramatic and narrative approach appear to have been significantly stimulated within the later nineties, and the course of his poetic improvement altered, by his studying of ballad literature” (86).

The implication of the previous paragraph is that quite than being a mere imitator of different ballad varieties, Wordsworth tailored the ballad to swimsuit his personal aims, which have been to supply a psychological perception into the inside workings and emotions of his characters. Commenting on Wordsworth’s intent to painting the emotions of his characters, Parrish remarks that:
Whether or not the sensation belonged to an entirely invented character, to a colloquial voice assumed by the poet – and even, as in “Simon Lee” and a few of the shorter items in ballad stanzas, to the poet himself – it was, I recommend, a particular and authentic function of those experiments in ballad kind. (94)

However using narrative approach, characterization, and dramatic kind, whereas lending itself to a improvement of character that’s in some methods richer and extra insightful than earlier poets, doesn’t totally clarify the persevering with recognition and affect of the Lyrical Ballads. There should be another clarification that offers credence to the enduring high quality of the work. In his paper “The Eye and the Object within the Poetry of Wordsworth,” Frederick Pottle postulates that Wordsworth’s actual genius lie in his capability to recall objects from reminiscence, after which to overlay them with the “coloring of creativeness.” Pottle maintains that Wordsworth’s distinctive use of creativeness arose from a capability to group objects collectively and to remove all the things that’s extraneous or superfluous, permitting him to show the “essence” of the article in his poems. Wordsworth does this by reflecting on the objects he needs to jot down about in tranquility, and to refine the picture he is considering till he’s glad that he had captured its “essence.” Pottle notes that Wordsworth doesn’t begin with the final, to reach on the specific, however “quite he begins with the actual, and ratifies it till he arrives at its that means” (15- 16).

This behavior of reacting to sensation, after which refining the feeling in later, contemplative reflection, is without doubt one of the tenets of Wordsworth’s principle of poetry and is elaborated within the Preface to Third Version of the Lyrical Ballads, as follows:
Creativeness, within the sense of the phrase as giving title to a category of the next Poems, has no reference to photographs which might be merely a trustworthy copy, present within the thoughts, of absent exterior objects; however is a phrase of upper import, denoting operations of the thoughts upon these objects, and processes of creation or of composition, ruled by sure fastened legal guidelines. (803)

James Heffernan, in his guide Wordsworth’s Idea of Poetry: The Reworking Creativeness, maintains that creativeness is the defining attribute of Wordsworth’s poetry, and is his actual contribution to poetic principle and the supply of the enduring attraction of his work.
Heffernan maintains that Wordsworth initially de-emphasized the inventive or imaginative energy of the creator, and sought as a substitute to seize an virtually intuitive perception into emotions, as the next excerpt demonstrates.

The poet, he insists, should not intervene with the gush of pure feeling, for a prudently chosen topic will mechanically generate passionate effusions of richly figurative language. …Relying solely on the precept of choice, he’ll chorus from embellishing the speech of intuition and impulse, realizing as he does in order that “no phrases, which his fancy or creativeness can recommend, can be [comparable] with…the emanations of actuality and reality.” (42-3)

As his concepts on the inventive energy of the creativeness started to mature, Wordsworth noticed in nature a “mentor, information and stimulus, [which] acts to purify the emotions,” (64) and gives man with a mirror of actuality. Not solely does nature present a touchstone for actuality, however it’s particularly suited to work together with the thoughts of man to provide a collaboration between man and nature:
What we’ve got here’s a concerted act. The response woke up by impulse in an imaginative thoughts makes doable a collaboration: nature, impotent with out “the poetic voice/That hourly speaks inside us” (Poetical Works, III, 264), turns into articulate via the thoughts and coronary heart of man. (67-8)

This mirroring of nature and the thoughts of man is seen by Wordsworth not solely as a type of collaboration, however as a course of which yields perception into a person’s deepest emotions: “Nature renders again to him his deepest self, in order that what he sees is an important analogy between the energies inside him and the energies with out” (96-97). This perception into man’s deepest emotions leads Wordsworth to kind a notion of a corresponding “energy” in nature that’s akin to human creativeness: “But one factor is evident. Wordsworth positively finds in nature proof for the existence of a “Energy” which behaves just like the human creativeness” (105).

It’s the goal of the creativeness to offer man with a connection to that “different” which is ever on the periphery of his imaginative and prescient; a connection that’s established within the quiet, somber moments of reflection that happen once we recollect the vivid impressions of our brightest days. Wordsworth’s use of creativeness, mixed with the novel use of dramatic kind, intensely realized characterization, and narrative approach produced a poetic kind that was uniquely speedy and accessible. It’s this immediacy and accessibility, mixed with Wordsworth’s imaginative powers, that earn the poet his enduring recognition.

Bibliography

Coleridge, S. T. (1950). The Transportable Coleridge. New York, The Penguin Group.

Johnson, S. (1973). Milton. Lives of the Poets. London, Oxford College Press. 1, 2:
Mayo, R. (1954). “The Contemporaneity of the Lyrical Ballads.” PMLA 69(3): 486-522.

Parrish, S. M. (1959). “Dramatic Approach within the Lyrical Ballads.” PMLA 74(1): 85-97.

Pottle, F.A. (1985). “The Eye and the Object within the Poetry of Wordsworth.” Trendy Crucial Opinions: William Wordsworth. H. Bloom. New York, Chelsea Home Publishers: 9-21.

Sheats, P. D. (1982). Preface to the Lyrical Ballads, 1800; Appendix,1802; Preface to the Version of 1815; Essay Supplementary to the Preface of 1815. The Poetical Works of Wordsworth. Boston, Houghton Mifflin: 939.

Wordsworth, W. (2002). Chosen Poetry of William Wordsworth. New York, The Trendy Library.

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