The Significance of English-Arabic Translation
This text is dedicated to the English Arabic translation; it is going to lay the sunshine on the definition of translation, the significance of English Arabic translation, the problem idioms impose to translators, the qualities of a superb translator and the need for translation normally.
Translation in Dr. Hasanuddin Ahmed’s phrases is: “the motion or strategy of delivering from one language into one other. It’s the expression or rendering of sense of phrases, sentences, and passages and many others from one language into one other.” Ulm-ul-Qur’an, Dr. Hasanuddin Ahmed, I.A.S.
The Columbia Encyclopedia defines translation because the rendering of a textual content into one other language.
Katharine Barnwell (1986, p. 8).defines it as follows: Translation is re-telling, as precisely as potential, the which means of the unique message in a manner that’s pure within the language into which the interpretation is being made.
Translation is rather more than the interpretation of the which means of a textual content in a single language and the manufacturing of a brand new, equal textual content in one other language , or the substitution of the phrases of 1 language with the phrases of one other language, or the rendering of which means of a textual content or in anyway in a single language into one other, it’s the bridge of appreciation and understanding amongst individuals of various cultural teams , it’s the technique of communication amongst completely different teams of individuals, the technique of cultural alternate, the technique of preserving cultural heritage of any nation, the technique of forming ties and friendships amongst completely different teams of individuals, and the technique of understanding and peace.
Human beings are in spite of everything not residing alone and, each human being has the necessity and need to learn about each other, man tries to be taught what different persons are doing, how they’re residing, and the way they’ve lived. We wish to know, aside from our completely different ethnicity, colour, language, and tradition, whether or not we share the identical understanding of affection, ardour, sorrow, aspiration, sympathy, jealousy and plenty of different respects of human nature. So so long as the need to exists, translation would be the solely bridge throughout which our goals are reached and our need realized.
Within the normal sense, the objective of translation is to construct bridges amongst completely different teams of individuals, however the objective of translation within the theoretical sense is to ascertain a relationship of equivalence between the supply and the goal language; it ought to be certain that each texts talk the identical message.
There was debate as as to if translation is an artwork, a science, or a Talent. I believe Translation is a mix of all of them. It’s a science within the sense that it wants full data of the construction, grammar, semantics, and syntax and normally the make-up of the 2 languages involved. It’s an artwork because it requires inventive expertise to reconstruct the unique textual content within the type of a product that’s presentable to the reader who shouldn’t be purported to be conversant in the unique. It’s also a talent, as a result of it requires consideration to element the which means and an intensive understanding of the connection between syntax and semantics, coupled with in depth cultural background and the power to supply the interpretation of one thing that has no equal within the goal language.
Additionally being a human talent, it allows human beings to alternate concepts and ideas whatever the completely different languages they use. Man is endowed with the power to convey his emotions and expertise to others by way of language. For this strategy of communication man acquired each spoken language and the written language, however when human beings unfold over the earth, their languages differed they usually wanted a way by way of which they will talk and work together with every others. Thus necessity for translation to convey one’s emotions and experiences into the opposite language was felt.
Generally we ask ourselves, why is translation between English and Arabic vital? Each Arabic and English are of the world nice languages, within the guide ‘The Unfold of English, on web page 77 the author says: “the good languages of as we speak are languages of empire, previous and current. Solely two, Mandarin Chinese language and Russian, proceed as languages of administration inside single, ethno linguistically various states. The others -Arabic, English, French, and Spanish-are imperial legacies, having survived the disintegration of the empires that fostered them.”
Arabic language is among the nice world languages. there have been nice languages of nice empires that didn’t survive as an awesome language , like Turkish for example, after we examine Turkish with Arabic, we discover out that Arabic survived the disintegration of the Arab Islamic empire and it continues to be one of many nice languages of the world until as we speak, whereas the Turkish language which was the language of administration and authority within the center east , Balkans, and completely different components of the world that was below the Ottoman rule for a thousand years ,however Turkish within the phrases of Fishman on web page 77 within the guide ‘The Unfold of English” ‘flowed again to Anatolia with the collapse of the ottoman empire’. However these phrases are usually not 100% correct as a result of Turkish is spoken throughout Turkey and in Northern Cyprus, not solely in Anatolia which is barely part of Turkey. Additionally Turkish minorities within the former Soviet Union republics, Bulgaria, Russia, Greece, and Romania use Turkish as their mom tongue. Furthermore the languages of Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, are all branches of the Turkic language household. But, no denying that Turkish language misplaced numerous its significance after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire.
Returning to Arabic, it is among the six official languages adopted in The United Nations. Arabic is the language of a wealthy tradition and civilization courting again many centuries; it was the language of Muhammad, the Messenger and Prophet of Allah (Allah is the Arabic phrase for God), and it’s the language of the Holy Qura’an. It has produced nice figures comparable to Averroes(Ibn-Roshd), the medieval Aristotelian thinker; Ibn Khaldun, the primary social historian; and Khalil Jibran. Between the eighth and the fifteenth centuries, the quantity of literary, scholarly and scientific guide manufacturing in Arabic and the extent of city literacy amongst readers of Arabic had been the very best the world had ever recognized to that point. Islamic artists have used Arabic script as their principal artwork kind for hundreds of years; the great thing about their work might be revealed to anybody by way of the research of Arabic. Arabic is a member of the Semitic group of languages, intently associated to Hebrew and Aramaic, the language the Christ spoke. Furthermore, Arabic is extensively spoken; whole audio system of Arabic exceed 350 million.
Based on the Wikipedia encyclopedia, Arabic was additionally a serious automobile of tradition, particularly in science, arithmetic and philosophy in the course of the center ages, that’s the reason many European languages have additionally borrowed quite a few phrases from it.
Pamela J.Farris says in her guide Language arts on web page 99
“English has borrowed from Arabic algebra, sweet, lemon, orange, sugar, and journal.”
Not solely these phrases English borrowed from Arabic, however there are a whole bunch of different phrases borrowed from Arabic, there are some a whole bunch of the phrases English borrowed from Arabic in Al Mawrid English-Arabic dictionary, comparable to storm which implies in Arabic 7HA’F , Spinach 3(‘F. , and sesame which implies in Arabic 3E3E.
So Arabic being one of many world nice languages makes translation from and into that language essential, particularly English Arabic translation.
Little question that English is a world language; these days it’s the language of science, aviation, computing, diplomacy, and tourism. It’s listed because the official or co-official language of quite a few nations .In addition to Arabic, it is among the six official languages within the United Nations
Consequently, the data of the English language is among the most vital instruments in reaching scientific and technological data; furthermore it’s a instrument of communication between nations, completely different cultural teams, varied corporations and organizations, communities and buddies.
Translation is the instrument to utilize the brand new expertise and science. Science data coupled with a number of languages and cultures are more and more vital in an increasing world financial system and world welfare. It’s clear that Britain and the USA are the forefront of recent concepts in science and expertise. USA has pioneered in all fields of expertise and science; accomplishments of Britain and US expertise are in English, so it is extremely important to know English to utilize such expertise and science.
Additionally Political relationships, wars, and conflicts make translation so vital to have entry to what’s going on in several components of the world, particularly Arabic English translation, as English is the language of the large powers of the world, and the Arab area is the theatre, the place important occasions happen at current.
No denying that English is the cornerstone of the world media, many vital information sources are in English, on web page 34 of the guide The Unfold of English the author says: “English newspapers in non English mother-tongue nations are one other indication of the world extensive standing of English”.
If one is aware of English, one can learn the information and factors of views of a number of writers across the globe, by doing so one can increase his data, and get a broader outlook on the environment, and to have a look at points with a broader perspective. In my view, understanding any language is a world passport particularly English.
English can be the language of communication, with the unfold of web, English seemed to be the language of communication, a whole bunch of thousands and thousands of various races talk with every others through the web in English, thus English helps to strengthen ties, and make buddies amongst completely different cultural teams of individuals on completely different spots of our planet.
So being the language of science expertise and communication, within the age of the web, English unfold so extensively, there has by no means been a language so extensively unfold in so brief a time as English.
As talked about above, each Arabic and English are nice world languages, so translation between this pair of languages is vital and important due to the various causes talked about beforehand.
Translation has been and continues to be the technique of cultural and data alternate amongst individuals all through historical past, and the technique of preserving cultural heritage.
Because the Islamic Arabic Empire unfold, the Arabic language and, certainly, tradition was enriched by contacts with different civilizations: Greeks, Persians, Copts, Romans, Indians and Chinese language. In the course of the ninth and tenth centuries, an awesome translation motion, centered in Baghdad, was in power, by which many historical scientific and philosophical tracts had been transposed from historical languages, particularly Greek, into Arabic. Many had been enhanced by the brand new knowledge prompt by Arab thinkers; different texts had been merely preserved, solely to re-emerge in Europe in the course of the Renaissance.
Fashionable European languages, comparable to Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian and English owe an awesome debt to Arabic. The English language itself accommodates many phrases borrowed from Arabic: algebra, alchemy, admiral, genius, ghoul, mare sherbet, soda and plenty of others. “
By the technique of translation cultural heritage is preserved and new civilizations advanced and flourished; the western civilization for example, was established on the Arabic and Islamic civilization; scientific books had been translated from Arabic into completely different European languages, and it was the core for the present western civilization.
Within the guide of “Muslim Contributions to World Civilization” On web page 118 we are going to discover that, “From 1154 AC to the sixteenth century, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim students from Western Europe and Spain translated books from Arabic into Latin within the Toledo Academy established by Alfonso, Sabio the Sensible. The translations had been then distributed to educational facilities in Europe, the place they grew to become the idea of the Renaissance, the revival of data in Europe.”
Stanwood Cobb says:” Europe was indebted for all of its beginnings in alchemy and chemistry to the chemical science of the Arabs, which reached them by way of translation of Arabic works into Latin. On this science, as in different arts and sciences which they practiced, they developed an goal and experimental technique versus the purely speculative technique of the Greeks.”
“The science of algebra owes a lot to gifted mathematicians of the
Islamic period. Its very identify proves the magnitude of this debt, for the identify itself is Arabic, al gebr, “a binding collectively .”
“Along with the volumes of Greek science, many scientific works of the Arabs-Avicenna, Averroes, and Rhazes in particular-were translated.”
So English-Arabic translation has been and continues to be of nice significance, the causes up to now and current are solely completely different. At present, it’s well-known that English Arabic translation is more and more turning into a subject of a lot concern and significance as of late. Oil, strategic location, historical past of the Islamic and completely different different civilizations that happened within the Arabic area, and the present occasions within the Center East on the Arab facet and the western need to own the oil and dominate the area on the Western facet, contribute to this significance. This paper highlights the significance of English Arabic translation, primarily the interpretation of the 2 phrase English idioms into Arabic; as English language is filled with idioms native audio system of English use numerous idioms and expressions in on a regular basis conversations, books, newspapers, magazines, TV exhibits on the Web as a result of idioms add colour to the language, however on the identical time, idioms are obscure as a result of their which means shouldn’t be what it seems to be at first sight. This imposes a serious issue to translators from English into Arabic.
For instance within the Telegraph newspaper dated 19/09/2006 one of many headlines reads “Police patrols at church buildings stepped up in Pope Row”
The Idiom ‘step up is used on this article, the Idiom Connection defines the idiom’ step up ‘as follows “rise to a better or extra vital place, be promoted”
Al Mawrid dictionary interprets the idiom ‘step up’ as J2J/- J6’9A- J2/’/- J*6’9A- JF/A9- J*B/E
Within the context of the earlier article, the idiom ‘step up’ will be translated as – J2/’/ , it’s the translation of the which means of the idiom.
A Second instance in The Sunday Occasions dated April 30, 2006, the Idiom ‘again down’ is used within the following articles:
Iran’s psychopath in chief, by Israel
“Britain, France, Germany and America hope to cross a decision on the United Nations Safety Council this week mandating Iran to droop its work on uranium enrichment. If Iran refuses to again down, the safety council may impose focused sanctions.”
Additionally within the Mail guardian on-line dated 07 November 2005 we are going to discover the headline
‘Blair to again down on anti-terror legal guidelines’
British Prime Minister Tony Blair reluctantly accepted on Monday that he must again down on proposed anti-terror legal guidelines that might allow police to carry individuals for as much as 90 days with out charging them.
House Secretary Charles Clarke, asserting what quantities to a climbdown, stated, nevertheless, that the brand new time restrict wouldn’t be as brief because the 28 days sought by critics of the brand new Terrorism Invoice, which faces a parliamentary vote on Wednesday.
“We don’t wish to compromise on the 90 days in any respect. It will likely be a compromise with this nation’s safety,” stated Blair at his month-to-month Downing Avenue press convention, the place he held out hope that he may but minimise the influence.
American Heritage Dictionary of Idioms – defines the idiom’ ‘again down as ‘Reverse one’s upward course, descend. For instance, When she noticed the wasps’ nest on the roof, she swiftly backed down the ladder. This literal utilization often refers to one thing one has climbed, comparable to a ladder or mountain. [Mid-1800s]
Al Mawrid dictionary interprets the idiom ‘again down’ as –J*F’2D 9F E7D(
Additionally 9F J*.DJ 9F – J*1′,9 is a correct translation
Within the earlier articles, it may be translated as 9F J*.DJ 9F – J*1′,9, and it’s the translation of the which means of the idiom.
Idioms are one of many elements that makes translation stay a human exercise; though makes an attempt have been made to automate and computerize the interpretation of pure language texts, or to make use of computer systems as an assist to translation, however translation stays primarily a human exercise that wants talent, intelligence, human feeling that retains the life and spirit of the unique language to the translated textual content, idioms pose a problem to any translation program. Since numerous idioms can’t be translated actually.
The suitable understanding of Idioms is the important thing to have a superb translation from English into Arabic. English is filled with idioms; native audio system of English use numerous idioms and expressions of their speech and writing, in different phrases, native audio system of English use idioms on a regular basis. Idioms are the grease that makes language move, however on the identical time idioms are obscure as a result of an idiom is “An expression whose meanings can’t be inferred from the meanings of the phrases that make it up.” Webster’s On-line Dictionary, however some are simpler to guess once they have some affiliation with the unique which means of the person phrases. So the translator ought to concentrate on the idioms.
The idiom ‘chilly toes’ which the Cambridge Superior Learners Dictionary defines as:”to instantly grow to be too frightened to do one thing you had deliberate to do, particularly one thing vital comparable to getting married” , whereas the American Heritage Dictionary defines the idiom ‘chilly toes’ as
“Fearfulness or timidity stopping the completion of a plan of action”.
It’s utilized in an article within the guardian newspaper on Saturday March 25, 2006 as follows:
‘Iraq hostages ‘had been saved by rift amongst kidnappers’
o Guards bought chilly toes after American was shot
o Returning Kember ‘didn’t say due to rescuers’
Jonathan Steele in Amman, Ewen MacAskill and Richard Norton-Taylor
Saturday March 25, 2006
The British hostage Norman Kember and his two Canadian colleagues owe their freedom to a rift amongst their Iraqi kidnappers, a western safety supply near the rescue operation stated yesterday.
This idiom used within the earlier article will be translated as AB/’F ‘D-E’3 DA9D 4& E’- FB5’F ‘D4,’9G #H ‘D+B) DA9D 4& E’, the interpretation is the paraphrase of the idiom in response to definitions given above. So the proper understanding of idioms is the important thing to translate properly.
An idiom is realized and used as a single unit of language; and ought to be translated in the identical manner. To translate idioms the translator , to begin with wants to acknowledge idioms , perceive them, know the tradition from which the idiom comes, the origin, the environment by which it’s used , then the translator ought to do his/her greatest, at first to seek out an equal or a corresponding idiom within the goal language that retains the flavour of the unique, if there’s not such corresponding idiom or phrase the translator analyzes the idiom and interprets the which means of the idiom in phrases that preserve the colour and taste of the idiom within the supply language
Each language is idiomatic; every language has a sure algorithm that govern the way in which phrases are put collectively to specific information, concepts and emotions. The foundations and their exceptions are distinctive to the language, regardless of potential similarities with different languages. On this sense, a language is all the time idiomatic. Inside this normal consideration, we often consider ‘idioms’ as distinctive phrases: we use them to specific one thing that different, extra normal sentences cannot categorical simply as properly. You will need to be taught idioms to have the ability to talk properly. They’re additionally attention-grabbing to check due to the perception they offer us into the language and the individuals who use them. These expressions originate within the historical past, literature, faith, and traditions typical of a sure group. Because of this, idioms reveal a lot of the mind-set of a group.
Since idiomatic expressions are so ceaselessly encountered in each spoken and written discourse, they require particular consideration in translation
the Oxford Superior Learner’s Dictionary defines ‘idiom’ as : a gaggle of phrases whose which means is completely different from the meanings of the person phrases:. This implies even when one is aware of the which means of every phrase; one could not perceive the idiom itself. So we can not translate the idioms appropriately until we perceive their which means. If we have in mind the idiom ‘ New blood and translate it into Arabic (/E ,/J/) phrase by phrase, (/E ,/J/) is typically utilized in Arabic to imply younger individuals. On one hand, it may be considered as an equal, alternatively generally it’s arduous to guess that the expression really means ‘ individuals with numerous vitality or contemporary concepts who’re introduced into a corporation to be able to enhance it’ as outlined in Cambridge superior Learner’s dictionary, as in F-*’, ‘DJ /E ,/J/– it may possibly imply the necessity for brand new blood in a hospital for example, however generally it may be misunderstood.
Primarily based on the earlier definition in Cambridge superior Learner’s Dictionary, the suitable translation for this idiom is #4.’5 EDJ&) (‘D7’B) H ‘D-JHJ) H ‘D#AC’1- ‘AC’1 H 7’B’* ,/J/) .The interpretation here’s a paraphrase.
As a matter of reality, the literal translation of an idiom is usually absurd or comical. The idiom ‘Again burner ‘ actually interprets into Arabic as ”D-‘1B ‘D.DAJ’
The literal translation in Arabic sounds comical. The Dictionary of English Idioms & Idiomatic Expressions defines it as follows: If a difficulty is on the again burner, it’s being given low precedence is ‘ then the proper translation is -‘D EF 9/E ‘D’G*E’E-BDJD ‘D’GEJ)
generally The picture created by the literal which means of an idiom is comedian however generally it may possibly assist to do not forget that idiom.
Right here is an instance of English idioms that may be simply understood from the photographs they evoke. The English idiom double confronted interprets actually in Arabic as 0H H,GJF- (with two faces) in Arabic. So the picture created by this idiom helps us to recollect and perceive it. So we are able to translate it as EF’AB ‘hypocrite’ in Arabic- or -E.’/9 deceiver (in Arabic), which might be an satisfactory translation. The picture created by the idiom double confronted could make us consider an individual with two faces , which implies hypocrite .Regardless that utilizing the photographs of the literal translation is an efficient and enjoyable strategy to be taught English idioms, the literal translation alone is deceiving in lots of instances
The actual which means of the English idiom must be realized in context to be appropriately understood. It’s essential to check idioms inside sentences. A correct instance makes the which means and the use clear. For instance the idiom sitting duck which implies ‘a simple goal’, after we be taught this idiom in a sentence as in “His arguments had been so easy, she was in a position to knock them down like sitting geese.” It will likely be simple to grasp that the idiom means ‘a simple goal’ and translate it into Arabic adequately, if we translate it actually in Arabic it could be (7) ,’D3) which doesn’t make sense in Arabic, however the satisfactory translation is a paraphrase translation of the idiom which is G/A 3GD
Translation of concepts and which means from one language to a different leaves a lot freedom to the translator , however translation of idioms doesn’t want solely translation of concepts and which means , the translator ought to preserve the impact idioms give to the language as potential because the translator can. To translate idioms word-for-word” translation is insufficient and complicated, To translate idioms properly, the translator should acknowledge idioms to be idioms, the translator should perceive the targets and intents of the writer of the unique work; and the context by which idioms are used, then s/he ought to perceive the which means of the idioms, s/he ought to look it up in dictionaries, search on the net , ask native audio system, and perceive the therapeutic massage of the idiom and in what context it’s used . It’s good to discover a related idiom in Arabic that carries the identical which means of the English idiom, if the translator can not discover so it’s good to parse the idiom aside into its which means and translate the which means.
Katharine Barnwell says: The duty of the translator is to translate the which means of the message, reasonably than the phrases.
Bible Translation, Katharine Barnwell, 1986, p. 12.
With a purpose to have a superb translation, there should be a superb translator, who ought to be fluent within the two languages he seeks to translate between. He should perceive the language which he’s translating from, in addition to the language by which he’s translating the work into. Furthermore, a superb translator should particularly be a superb communicator within the goal language. translator should have the data, talent and expertise on this enterprise; Actually the translator has a really severe accountability to not change the which means in any manner. He should be cautious to not add something to the which means, or to depart any a part of the which means. Truly the duty of translator is tougher than the author himself, the author is free to specific his concepts and views in the way in which he sees appropriate and within the vocabulary he likes, however the translator confines himself to the phrases the author used and he should be cautious to not add something to the which means, or to depart any a part of the which means.
From what has been talked about above, it’s apparent that translation is the bridge of appreciation, love and friendship amongst nations, it’s essential for progress and prosperity .By the technique of translation new civilizations advanced, the western civilization was established on the Arabic and Islamic civilization; scientific, books had been translated from Arabic into Latin, and it was the idea for the western civilization.
English Arabic translation has been and continues to be of nice significance, as a result of each languages are nice world languages, furthermore present occasions, wars, conflicts and struggles in our world add to this significance ; English is the language of massive powers and Arabic is the language of the area the place conflicts happen for a lot of causes talked about beforehand
Idioms pose a problem to translators from English into Arabic. English is filled with idioms which can’t be understood from the person phrases .A translator of English idioms into Arabic wants good data of the 2 languages and a superb data of each cultures .Idioms replicate tradition traditions ,cultural identities and historical past of any nation. They offer us perception into historical past , tradition , traditions, and values, morals. So idioms replicate our frequent humanity by way of language.
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